MUAY THAI – THE BEGINNING
The evolution of Muay Thai is interwoven within the long and proud history of, The Kingdom of Siam, or what we now call, Thailand.
In the early 1590’s, when the Kingdom of Siam was being challenged by it’s neighbours, the Thai people were forced to defend themselves, their families and their land. The majority of these battles were fought at close contact and in extremely rough jungle terrain around the bordering countries.
It was during the Ayutthaya era, while under the rule of King Naresuan, that Muay Thai became etched into Thai history books when it became an integral element of Thai Army’s “hand to hand” combat defense on the battlefield. During this time, physical training and fighting methods were constantly modified until the Thai army created a form of hand to hand combat using various combinations of fists, feet, knees, elbows and hand-made weapons that gave them a distinct and ultimately winning advantage in this jungle warfare.
Every Thai soldier was trained in Muay Thai, as was the King himself.
This new fighting technique and it’s name varied regionally, however, it was generally known as Muay Boran, not Muay Thai. Many regional forms of Muay Thai developed with local variations, such as; “Muay Jerng” in the North, “Muay Korat” in the North-East, “Muay Chaiya” in the South and “Muay Lopburi” from Central Thailand.
During the 1920′s-30′s, King Rama VII streamlined the Thai martial art competitions by introducing referees, boxing gloves, timed rounds and western style boxing rings. Many of the traditional Muay Boran techniques were banned or not considered practical with the addition of the new rules, as a result, the popularity of Muay Boran went into decline.
Prior to the 1930’s, Muay Thai was an even more dangerous sport than it is now! Fighters wore no safety gear and wrapped lengths of rope or cord around their fists as a substitute for western style boxing gloves. Over the years the rules have been altered to be more closely aligned to recognised international boxing regulations.
It became a rite of passage for the majority of rural Thai men to take up training in Muay Thai. Over time, Muay Thai has become an important element of Thai tradition and culture.
It is from these beginnings that Muay Thai has become the most popular sport in Thailand.
MUAY THAI – BUDDHISM
Traces of Buddhism can be found in every aspect of Muay Thai. The most prominent is in the regalia that Muay Thai fighters wear. Below are some of the more popular pieces which make up the traditional outfit of a Muay Thai fighter.
The Mongkhon is a traditional headpiece worn by a Thai fighter as they enter the ring and perform the Wai Khru and Ram Muay. It is placed on the head of the fighter before they make their way to the ring.
Before the Mongkhon is placed on the fighter’s head, a prayer, which is believed to protect the fighter from harm during combat, is recited. It is removed from the head of the fighter after the Wai Khru and Ram Muay are performed.
The Pra Jiad is another sacred piece worn by a Muay Thai fighter. Differing from the Mongkhon, the Pra Jiad is more personal to a fighter and are not usually shared throughout the gym.
Often, the Pra Jiad is hand made by a member of the fighter’s family and are braided from strands of a family garment or blessed cloth from a monk.
The phuang malai is a floral arrangement given to a fighter as a token of good luck. These flowers, usually made of Jasmine, are tied together making it long enough for the fighter to wear over their neck. In Buddhist tradition, the flower symbolizes life and death and the impermanence of existence.
Wai Khru and Ram Muay
The Wai Khru is the first part of the dance you see the fighter perform prior to the start of the bout. The fighter will seal the ring by walking along the inside perimeter of the ropes while stopping in each corner to say a quick prayer.
The act of sealing off the ring is said to keep bad luck out and protect the fighter throughout the course of their bout.
Next, the fighter goes to the centre of the ring and circles about three times. After which, the fighter will lower themselves to their knees and bow three times. Generally, in Buddhism things are done in threes as a sign of imperfection. Each time they bow they will give respect to their trainer, their spiritual beliefs, ask for luck and an honourable performance.
Following the Wai Khru a fighter will begin to perform the Ram Muay. The Ram Muay does not have set routines, like the Wai Khru, and is more personal and fighter specific.
TRADITIONAL LIVE THAI MUSIC
At Lumpinee Stadium, musicians play traditional Thai music to accompany each match. This music is called Pi Muay, which is also the name of a traditional Thai musical instrument not unlike a clarinet.
The musicians vary the tempo and volume of the music to reflect the excitement of the match in progress.
The musical instruments orchestrated in the background of the Wai Khru rituals and in the competitions consist of the Ta Pong or Glong-Kag (Two face drum), Toe Pee Java (Javanese flute) and the Ching (cymbals).
MUAY THAI – STADIUMS
Rajadamnern Stadium, sometimes called, Ratchadamnoen, was the first purpose built, Muay Thai stadium in Thailand.
Construction of this enormous concrete building commenced in 1941, after delays through World War II, Rajadamnern Stadium, belatedly opened to the public on December 23, 1945 as an open air stadium. Six years later, a roof was added, giving spectators and fighters welcome relief from the often extreme weather conditions.
Today, Rajadamnern Stadium is still a very popular attraction for tourists and Muay Thai enthusiasts alike. Outside the stadium there are Muay Thai equipment shops, food courts, and on any given fight night you will find hundreds of motor scooters lined up outside the stadium; the property of gambling Muay Thai enthusiasts who come to the stadium, prepared to risk all on their favourite fighters.
Rajadamnern Stadium – INFO
Fight Nights: Monday, Wednesday and Thursday 6:30-10 pm; Sunday (2 sessions) 3-5 pm and 6:30-10 pm
Ticket Prices: 3rd Class 1,000 B-; 2nd Class 1,500 B- and Ringside 2,000 B-
Social Media: Rajadamnern Facebook
Rajadamnern Stadium Rankings
Rajadamnern Stadium Next Fight Card
The original Lumpinee Stadium opened on December 8th 1956, and closed 58 years later, on the 8th February 2014.
Below are photos of the original Lumpinee Stadium on the closing night on the 8th of February 2014.
The new Lumpinee Stadium has been built 20 kilometres away on Ramintra Road, close to Don Muang Airport, and holds up to 5,000 spectators in a modern, purpose built, air-conditioned stadium.
Lumpinee Stadium is managed by the Royal Thai Army on behalf of the Thai Government. It has become the symbol of modern Muay Thai.
Only Rajadamnern Stadium rivals the prestige of holding the title of “Muay Thai Champion of Lumpinee”.
Lumpinee Stadium stages Muay Thai fighting 3 nights a week; Tuesday, Friday and Saturday.
There are 3 types of seating available, the best seats are at ringside. Drinks and snacks can be purchased inside the stadium. Light meals are available, but there are no sit down restaurants on site.
Lumpinee Stadium – INFO
Fight Nights: Tuesday, Friday & Saturday
Ticket Prices: 200 – 2000 Baht
Social Media: Lumpinee Facebook
Upcoming Events :Lumpinee Stadium Next Fight Card
A video of the first ever fight at the new Lumpinee Stadium
Siam Omnoi Stadium
Omnoi Stadium, as it is more often called, was constructed in 1987 in Samutsakorn Province, replacing the former Samrong Boxing Stadium.
Omnoi Stadium was specifically built as a venue for live broadcasting of Muay Thai on television. Initially Channel 9 had the broadcasting rights, since 1993 the contract has been with Channel 3.
Omnoi has become synonymous with tournament-style Muay Thai competitions, and has become a very popular stadium for hardcore gamblers and foreigners who are training at local Muay Thai gyms.
Siam Omnoi Stadium – INFO
Location: Bangkok (Thai TV Channel 3)
Fight Nights: Saturday
Ticket Prices: Free
Social Media: Facebook Page
Rankings: Siam Omnoi Stadium Rankings
Channel 7 Stadium
Channel 7 Stadium is located in Bangkok and is part of the Channel 7 Television Studio. Unlike Rajadamnern and Lumpini Stadiums, Channel 7 is free for spectators so long as there are seats available. But once inside, one often wonders if they ever turn anyone away. Each fighter warms up outside of the stadium and when it is their turn to fight, they are shuffled through the thick crowd of gamblers.
Channel 7 Stadium – INFO
Fight Nights: Sunday + every 3rd Wednesday of the Month
Ticket Prices: Free
Website / Social Media: www.ch7.com
Rankings: Channel Seven Stadium Rankings
MUAY THAI – CHILDREN
The fact that children as young as five and six years old begin their careers in such a violent sport has obviously been a source of controversy. Children make their way to Muay Thai gyms for a variety of reasons, regardless of why, it inevitably sparks a serious human rights debate.
Muay Thai is a double sided coin in Thai society, however, with it’s long history and place within the Thai culture, even the most powerful and conservative will turn a blind eye to this issue.
Chira Wichaisuthikulm, a Thai film-maker whose documentary, “Lumpinee”, explores the world and significance of Muay Thai in a group of children’s lives.
“For these kids, it could mean an opportunity to change their life from a poor and uneducated background into a successful athlete and able to provide for their family”, says Chira Wichaisuthikulm.
Some children come to the camps to escape a life of homelessness, drug addiction, poverty and drifting. Others commit early purely for the love of the sport.
As a result, boxing camps function as large family units in which coaches often fill the roles of absent fathers and daily activities are executed communally.
Lumpinee Documentary Film – Official Trailer
MUAY THAI – “FIGHTER OF THE YEAR”
1930’s to 1990’s
MUAY THAI – PHOTOS
“Muay Thai 2015 Fighter of the Year”
Famous fighter Aikpracha (second from left) hanging out with the kids
MUAY THAI – LINKS
World Muay Thai Council – The Official World Governing Body for Professional Muay Thai. Established in 1995 under directive of Royal Thai Government, approved by the Thai Parliament
Muay Thai Rules – Muay Thai Rules and Regulations of Lumpinee Boxing Stadium
Muay Thai in popular culture – A comprehensive list of Muay Thai films, television and games.